By Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445
Transparent figuring out of the results of torsion on concrete individuals is vital to the secure, low-budget layout of bolstered and prestressed concrete individuals. This file starts with a short and systematic precis of the 180-year background of torsion of structural concrete individuals, new and up to date theories and their functions, and a historic evaluate outlining the advance of study on torsion of structural concrete participants. historic theories and truss types contain classical theories of Navier, Saint-Venant, and Bredt; the three-d (3-D) house truss of Rausch; the equilibrium (plasticity) truss version of Nielson in addition to Lampert and Thürlimann; the compression box thought (CFT) through Collins and Mitchell; and the softened truss version (STM) by means of Hsu and Mo.
This document emphasizes that it truly is necessary to the research of torsion in bolstered concrete that individuals may still: 1) fulfill the equilibrium situation (Mohr’s pressure circle); 2) obey the compatibility (Mohr’s pressure circle); and three) determine the constitutive relationships of fabrics reminiscent of the “softened” stress-strain courting of concrete and “smeared” stress-strain dating of metal bars. The habit of participants subjected to torsion mixed with bending second, axial load, and shear is mentioned. This document offers with layout matters, together with compatibility torsion, spandrel beams, torsional restrict layout, open sections, and dimension results.
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Extra info for ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete
1b for Series B. Three pairs of companion specimens from this testing program are examined: A1 and B1, A3 and B2, and A5 and B3. Specimens A1 (Fig. 1a) and B1 (Fig. 1b) were designed assuming uncracked stiffness of both floor and spandrel beams. Specimens A3 and B2 were designed according to the limit design theory, assuming the joint moment to be 48 percent of that calculated from the elastic moment distribution using the uncracked stiffnesses of the floor and spandrel beams (and therefore 52 percent torsional moment redistribution).
2d) htb = 3. 2f) htb Fig. 2—Strength contour (ws) diagram (Leu and Lee 2000). contour diagram, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed to give the torsional strength of a rectangular member when their longitudinal and transverse reinforcement indexes, wL and wt, are calculated. Because this graph is built on the failure mode diagram of Hsu (1993), it can also predict the four failure modes: 1) Under-reinforced 2) Partially under-reinforced in the transverse direction 3) Partially under-reinforced in the longitudinal direction 4) Over-reinforced.
Specimens A1 (Fig. 1a) and B1 (Fig. 1b) were designed assuming uncracked stiffness of both floor and spandrel beams. Specimens A3 and B2 were designed according to the limit design theory, assuming the joint moment to be 48 percent of that calculated from the elastic moment distribution using the uncracked stiffnesses of the floor and spandrel beams (and therefore 52 percent torsional moment redistribution). Specimens A5 and B3 were designed by assuming 100 percent redistribution, meaning the spandrel beam in these two specimens was not designed to sustain any torsion.
ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445