By Martin P Yurawecz
Content material: [v.1] The early years -- organic actions -- guidance of unlabeled and isotope-labeled conjugated linoleic and similar fatty acid isomers -- advertisement creation -- Oxidation -- Methylation approaches -- Separation of conjugated fatty acid isomers -- gasoline chromatography/(Electron impression) mass spectrometry research of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) utilizing varied derivatization recommendations -- id of CLA isomers in nutrients and organic extracts through mass spectrometry -- affirmation of conjugated linoleic acid geometric isomers via capillary fuel chromatography-Fourier remodel infrared spectroscopy -- Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic research -- identity and quantification of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in fatty acid combinations via ¹³C NMR spectroscopy -- Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid and its incorporation into meat and milk in ruminants -- Endogenous synthesis of rumenic acid -- influence of ionophores -- Species-dependent, sesonal, and nutritional edition -- nutritional keep an eye on of immune-induced cachexia -- Incorporation of conjugated fatty acid into organic matrices -- Bone metabolism -- probability of breast melanoma -- CLA in lipids of fish tissues -- CLA in human milk -- Lipid metabolism on the subject of its anticarcinogenic task -- Conjugated linoleic acid metabolites in rats -- influence of conjugated linoleic acid on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and immune functionality -- rules of stearoyl-CoA desaturase via conjugated linoleic acid -- changing physique composition -- Feeding CLA to pigs: results on feed conversion, carcass composition, meat caliber, and palatability -- nutritional assets and intakes of conjugated linoleic acid consumption in people -- Formation, contents, and estimation of day-by-day consumption of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and trans-fatty acids in meals -- Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits -- Modulation of diabetes by means of CLA -- Conjugated linoleic acid as a nutraceutical: 15 years of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid learn -- melanoma inhibition in animals -- consumption of dairy items and breast melanoma chance -- v. 2
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Extra resources for Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 2
Although most of these reviews are cursory at best, they do provide useful overviews of CLA composition and methods of analysis. The final part of this chapter will include such topics as application of semipreparative Ag-HPLC to isolate multigram quantities of CLA isomers or CLA-enriched TAG and problems in the development of standard methods utilizing Ag-HPLC. Silver-Ion TLC Silver-ion TLC is often used with GC as part of a hyphenated technique for analysis of CLA isomers as FAME and, to a lesser extent, TAG.
However, geometrical isomers cannot be differentiated on the basis of their mass spectra, although geometrical configuration can be inferred from chromatographic behavior (and confirmed by GC-FTIR). GC-MS of MTAD adducts of commercial CLA methyl esters has been used to differentiate between positional isomers. The mass spectra are simple and contain intense diagnostic ions, but chromatographic resolution of different isomers is poor because analyses can be performed only on nonpolar columns. GC-MS has been an invaluable tool for determining the positions of double bonds in CLA metabolites formed by elongation/desaturation reactions.
In natural CLA extracts, non-CLA FAME may occur in the CLA region of the gas chromatogram. Differentiation of such peaks from CLA isomers has been achieved by using high-resolution GC-MS in SIR mode by monitoring for the molecular ion of CLA. A final application of GC-MS has been in identifying artifacts, such as allylic methoxy 18:1 FAME, that are formed when CLA is methylated under harsh acidic conditions. References 1. , and Ku Y. (1999) Preparation, Separation, and Confirmation of the Eight Geometrical cis/trans Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers 8,10- Through 11,13-18:2, Lipids 34, 873–877.
Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 2 by Martin P Yurawecz