By Alexander Mikaberidze
The 400-plus entries in "Atrocities, Massacres, and struggle Crimes: An Encyclopedia" offer available and concise details at the tough topic of abject human violence devoted on all continents. The entries during this two-volume paintings describe atrocities, massacres, and battle crimes dedicated within the twentieth century, thereby documenting how people have time and again confirmed their potential to dedicate terrible acts of inhumanity even in really contemporary instances and in the sleek period. The encyclopedia covers nations, treaties, and phrases; profiles people who have been officially indicted for battle crimes in addition to those that have devoted mass atrocities and long past unpunished; and addresses human rights violations, crimes opposed to humanity, and crimes opposed to peace.
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Extra info for Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia, Volumes 1-2
The Kurds resisted this forcible relocation and clashes erupted between them and the government forces. In response, the BaÊathist regime sanctioned the mass killing of anyone who refused to leave their villages. The Al-Anfal campaign consisted of eight major stages that lasted between February 23 and September 6, 1988 and featured ground offensives, aerial attacks, firing squads, and widespread use of chemical warfare. One of the goals of the al-Anfal campaign was the Arabization of IraqÊs north and the depopulated Kurdish villages were occupied by Arab settlers from IraqÊs southern regions.
Studies show that, in times of war there can be an increase in human aggression, a great increase in the risk of sexual violence and in the severity of an attack when alcohol is involved. Indeed, there is a close relationship between intoxicated soldiers and violence due to the extraordinary emotional stress in times of war. Alcohol also causes an increase in casualties and violence during wartime. The fact that many European armies provided alcohol as part of their daily ration | throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as during in World War I, highlights the acceptability of alcohol in war.
The demands of the war forced the government to relax the pass laws (which controlled the movement of nonwhites) and to permit racial integration in certain industries. Afrikaner nationalists, seeing in the governmentÊs expedience a plan to create a multiracial South Africa, fought the 1948 election on the issue of racial segregation. Though the African National Party won a narrow majority (it benefited from the protest votes of many whites who were simply tired of the previous administration), it was finally in a position to implement its policy of strict racial segregation.
Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia, Volumes 1-2 by Alexander Mikaberidze